Released prisoners of war on trucks at Yokohama Station, Japan, before leaving for the dock area to board hospital ship. Fighting continued until 18 January, and despite efforts by the 2/19th and 2/29th Battalions, the Johor defensive line collapsed. Although a price freeze was put in place in February 1942, by the end of the war prices in Malaya were 11,000 times higher than at the start of the war. On 7 January 1942, two brigades of the 11th Indian Infantry Division were defeated in the Battle of Slim River, giving the Japanese army easy passage to Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaya. This memorial commemorates those who served in both World War Two and the Malayan Emergency that followed the war. [18], Japan's defeat had caught the Japanese Command in Singapore by surprise. Jitra and then Alor Star fell into Japanese hands on 12 December 1941. During the Battle of Malaya, Kesatuan Melayu Muda members assisted the Japanese as they believed that the Japanese would give Malaya independence. 1942: Singapore forced to surrender. [44], Prior to the war, Malaya produced 40% of the world's rubber and a high proportion of the world's tin. The invading Japanese forces used slogans such as "Asia untuk orang Asia" (translation: Asia for Asians) to win support from the local Malays. An expedition was mounted October 1946 by the Number 46 War Graves Unit to recover and rebury all personnel they could locate.[61]. Before releasing the Malay The British had to retreat to the south. The Japanese then proceeded west towards the inexperienced 45th Indian Brigade, easily defeating them. [58], In addition to Japanese troops, some 7,000 Japanese civilians who had lived in Malaya prior to or during the occupation were also repatriated to Japan.[59]. During the occupation the Japanese replaced the Malayan dollar with their own version. There were a number of war crimes trials. Another surrender ceremony was held in Kuala Lumpur on 22 February 1946 for General Itagaki, the Commander of the 7th Area Army. The civilian police force was subservient to them. Between the Japanese surrender announcement and the return of the British the Wataniah provided protection for the Sultan from the MPAJA.[49]. On 12 September 1945, the British Military Administration (BMA) was installed in Kuala Lumpur. Leaders in Japan had long had an interest in the idea. Fujiwara and Dhillon convinced Major Mohan Singh to form the Indian National Army (INA) with disaffected Indian soldiers captured during the Malayan Campaign. The Japanese Army said the new Japanese empire was an Asian equivalent of the Monroe Doctrine,[1] especially with the Roosevelt Corollary. On 28 March mines were dropped in several harbours and the last Malaya mission by the 20th Air Force took place on 29 March when attack was made on a mix of targets. The Second Quebec Conference in September 1944 discussed the involvement of the British Navy against the Japanese. The route south to Rangoon now lay open. [2] By early 1945 the liberation of Malaya was planned to commence on 9 September under the code name Operation Zipper. Japanese spies, which included a British intelligence officer, Captain Patrick Stanley Vaughan Heenan and Lord Sempill also provided intelligence and assistance. During the occupation Penang was used as a submarine port by the Japanese, Italian, and German navies. The 45th Indian Infantry Brigade were placed along the western part of the line between Muar and Segamat. Sergeant Eiko Yoshimura, the Head of Kempeitai in Ipoh, was sentenced to death by hanging for the torture and abuse of civilians, including Sybil Kathigasu. Newspapers in Singapore were finally allowed to carry the text of the Emperor's speech, confirming what many already knew from listening to All India Radio broadcasts from Delhi on forbidden shortwave radios. Just before Singapore fell on 15 February 1942, the party began organise armed resistance in Johor. [28] When the British returned in 1945 the sailors were imprisoned at Changi, with the last, Fregattenkapitän Wilhelm Dommes, being repatriated to Germany in 1947. Of the first event, a primary account: “Corregidor and Bataan of historic memories were taken with relative ease. Various schools, including the Malay College at Kuala Kangsar,[41] were also repurposed as interrogation facilities for the Japanese. It was Wataru that implemented the occupation policies. Heenan's intelligence enabled the Japanese to destroy much of the Allied air forces on the ground. [32] Some Malay Regiment officers were beheaded by the Japanese. The last troops left the islands in July 1946. In 1945, British and American bombers also began dropping leaflets announcing the abolition of the banana currency used in Japanese-occupied Malaya and sprayed insecticide. Cemeteries for Malayan and Allied military personnel were created at Kranji War Cemetery in Singapore and Taiping War Cemetery in Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), Taiping, Perak. [48] Both the Malay and Indian communities gradually came into more conflict with the occupying Japanese prompting more joining the resistance movement, including Abdul Razak bin Hussein, and Abdul Rahman bin Hajih Tiab. Seven Italian BETASOM submarines were adapted to carry critical matériel from the Far East (Bagnolin, Barbarigo, Comandante Cappellini, Giuseppe Finzi, Reginaldo Giuliani, Enrico Tazzoli, and Luigi Torelli) of which two were sunk by the Allies, two were captured at Penang by the Germans after the September 1943 Italian surrender and used by them, and a fifth was captured in Bordeaux by the Germans, but not used.[27]. [35], Commencing in February in Singapore and then throughout Malaya a process of rounding up and executing those Chinese perceived as being threats began. Japanese soldiers landing at Kota Bharu divided into two separate forces, with one moving down the east coast towards Kuantan, and the other southwards towards the Perak River. The bombs were intended for the Kuala Lumpar marshaling yards. [54] A further attack on Penang occurred on 24 February. From May onward, British commandos from Force 136 infiltrated Malaya and made contact with the guerrillas. The Japanese provided assistance to the aircrews until they were picked up by another Mosquito.[56]. With the transfer of Malaya from the 25th to the 29th Army, Johore was placed under control of the Southern Army based at Singapore. On 16 December 1941, the British left Penang to the Japanese, who occupied it on 19 December. There were a total of seven escort carriers: HMS Ameer, HMS Attacker, HMS Emperor, HMS Empress, HMS Hunter, HMS Khedive and HMS Stalker. [9], The Japanese sought to change the common language of Malaya to Japanese. Malaya was a major prize for the Japanese as it produced 38% of the world’s rubber and 58% of the world’s tin. Aerial photos of post-liberation Manila might easily be mistaken for images of Hiroshima after the atomic bombing. The Japanese also took the railway track from Malacca and other branch lines for construction of the railway. [34] This message was elaborated on in a Syonan Times article of 28 February 1942 titled Sword that kills one and saves many. Following their victory, the British began planning for new landings in Malaya and for the recapture of Singapore. Monthly inflation reached over 40% in August 1945. Released prisoners of war being processed by Recovered Personnel Team Number 68 at Yokohama Docks before boarding hospital ship. [19][20] When Penang surrendered without resistance under Operation Jurist, the Allied fleet sailed for Singapore on 2 September, passing the Raffles Lighthouse at the Southern entrance to the Straits of Malacca. [18], About 200 Japanese soldiers decided to join the communist guerrillas whom they were fighting just days before in a bid to continue the fight against the British. It was replaced by the 29th Army's, 94th Infantry Division, under Lieutenant General Teizo Ishiguro, which was Headquartered in Taiping, Perak until the end of the war. Also operating at the same time as the MPAJA was the Pahang Wataniah, a resistance group formed by Yeop Mahidin. The Allied command directed the Australian 2/19th and 2/29th Battalions to the west; the 2/19th Battalion engaged the Japanese on 17 January 1942 to the south of Muar. The unrestrained printing of banknotes in the final months of the war created hyperinflation with the Japanese money becoming valueless at the end of the war. While the CPM’s insurgency was mainly targeted at the peninsula, they utilised a united-front strategy to seize control of organisations such as trade unions, student and cultural bodies as well as political parties in … Of primary concern were the ethnic Chinese who were known to financially support both Nationalist and Communist forces in China fighting the Japanese. Some more junior figures in the British "Estab lishment", especially those in Malaya before Templer, also see him in a more equivocal way. Burma (1948) and Malaya (1957) (Darwin, 1984; 1988; 1991). [18] All news publications in this region fell under its control. The Sultan's were initially allowed to continue as nominal rulers, with the intent that they would eventually be completely removed from power.[31]. When Germany surrendered the surviving submarines were taken by the Japanese and the German sailors moved to Batu Pahat. Captain Higashikawa, head of the Penang Branch of the Kempeitai, was executed. This led to arrest on 29, December 1942, by the Kempeitai. Terauchi prevailed over Itagaki who then sent his signal to Mountbatten. The Japanese provided assistance to t… After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the British prime minister, Winston Churchill, and the American president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, met at the First Washington Conference. The first strategic bombing raid was carried out by American Flying Fortresses on 2 February 1942 against Kuantan and Kuala Lumpur's airfields. When the US First Cavalry arrived in Manila on February 3, 1945, it proceeded to Santo Tomas University north of the Pasig River, where 3,785 Allied civilian prisoners of … URL: New Perspectives on the Japanese Occupation in Malaya and Singapore, 1941–1945, Yōji Akashi and Mako Yoshimura, NUS Press, 2008. There was, then, a peculiar appropriateness in the fact that the first man to enter Rangoon, on 2nd May 1945, was an Air Force officer of 221 Group, who landed his machine at Mingaladon airfield, walked into the city, and having assured himself that the Japanese were really gone, sailed down the river in a commandeered sampan to meet the troops advancing from the south. With increased guerilla activity more massacres occurred, including Sungei Lui, a village of 400 in Jempol District, Negeri Sembilan, that was wiped out on 31 July 1942 by troops under a Corporal Hashimoto. Ships of the occupation convoy en route to Singapore, August 1945, HMS Sussex docked in Singapore on 12 September 1945, Cheering schoolchildren welcome the return of the British Army on 5 September 1945, A soldier from the 5th Indian Division stands guard over Japanese prisoners, Mountbatten gives a public address in Singapore during the surrender ceremony, Abandoned Japanese Ki-45 Toryu fighters captured at Kallang Airfield, Surrendered Japanese cruiser Myōkō moored at Seletar alongside submarines I-501 and I-502, Instrument of Surrender signed by Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten for the Allies and General Itagaki for the Japanese, Chinese community holding preliminary celebrations through the city streets, with liberation banners, Union Jack is hoisted during the formal surrender of all Japanese southern armies, Japanese POWs are taken to work where they were made to clear up the city, Three of the indicted Japanese war criminals are led to their cells underneath the Supreme Court in Singapore, British reclamation of Singapore from Japanese occupation, Albert Minty, Black Cats: the real story of Australia’s long range Catalina strike force in the Pacific War, Solomons to Singapore, Cairns to the coast of China, RAAF Museum, Point Cook,1994, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, "Flying boats in the Second World War, 1939–45 | australia.gov.au", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Operation_Tiderace&oldid=995751600, Battles and operations of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 18:23. One held in 1947 found 7 Japanese officers guilty. The earlier liberation of Penang was intended to test Japanese intentions as a prelude to the eventual recapture of Singapore and the rest of Malaya. [16] Air strength in both Malaya and Sumatra was estimated to be a little more than 170 aircraft. With Intramuros secured on 4 March, Manila was officially liberated, but large areas of the city had been leveled.The battle left 1,010 U.S. soldiers dead and 5,565 wounded. Assumption of powers and jurisdiction, SAC had full executive … A blockade by Allied forces on the Japanese occupied territories coupled with a submarine campaign reduced the ability of the Japanese to move supplies between its occupied countries. In 1951 the MNLA succeeded in assassinating the High Commissioner, Henry Gurney. [24] No 3 Kempeitai was commanded by Major-General Masanori Kojima. Some of the proposed landings on Penang went ahead as planned to probe Japanese intentions, encountering no resistance. [54] The Royal Selangor museum was hit by bombs on 15 March. After the defeat by the Japanese, a number of Allied personnel retreated into the jungle. What will happen, in fact been replaced by the British colonial rule Japanese occupation of the brutal Japanese occupation of the British rule. Naval Action in the Indian Ocean : TBM Avengers from the escort aircraft carrier HMS Emperor sighted and attacked the heavy cruiser IJN Haguro heading into Malacca Strait. The Allied blockade meant that both imports and the limited exports to Japan were dramatically reduced.[31]. When the organisation only raised $28 million, the organisation was required to take out a loan for the balance.[43]. An estimated 77,000 Japanese troops from Singapore were captured, plus another 26,000 from Malaya. The first Japanese garrison in Malaya to lay down their arms was in Penang on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson. She eventually limped into Singapore at 12:00 on 11 September. Nonetheless, in the context of the politics of the Malay Peninsula, the series of key events that transpired during this 1945–57 period can be more implicitly interpreted as a process of "recolonisation." Procla­ma­tion No.1 is the doc­u­ment which le­git­imised the es­tab­lish­ment of the BMA. Japan is regarded as the liberator of the liberation of Malaya is a colonial power country. The sphere would, according to imperial propaganda, establish a new international order seeking "co prosperity" for Asian countries which would share prosperity and peace, free from Western colonialism and domination under the umbrella of a benevolent Japan.[5]. Edmonds, Walter. If they did then the whole group was executed.[40]. National Liberation War In June 1948 a state of emergency was declared in the British colony of Malaya (now Malaysia). Singapore's First Political Party Formed in 1945, ... 45-65: Liberation, Unrest... a New Nation traced Singapore's post-war history from 1945 to 1965 through six different themes. [53], On 11 January 1945 B-29's of the 20th Air Force attacked Penang. Lieutenant General Takuma Nishimura, one of the five given life sentences, was later found guilty of the Parit Sulong Massacre by an Australian court and executed. Singh was an officer in 1 Battalion of the 14th Punjab Regiment and had been captured after the Battle of Jitra. [10] The heavy cruiser HMS Sussex served as the flagship. As the war progressed all three ethnic communities began to suffer deprivations from increasingly severe rationing, hyper-inflation, and a lack of resources. [29][30] The structure remained similar to that of Malaya's pre-war civil service with many for Civil Servants being reappointed. The Japanese wanted the support of the Indian community to free India from British rule, and did not consider the Malays to be a threat. By early 1945 the liberation of Malaya was planned to commence on 9 September under the code name Operation Zipper. Some joined the MPAJA and others, such as Freddie Spencer Chapman, were Force 136 operatives who sought to begin a sabotage campaign against the occupying Japanese forces. The Japanese worked hard to convince the local population that they were the actual saviours of Malaya while Britain was portrayed as an imperialist force that wished to exploit Malaya's resources. [10], When Wataru was replaced in March 1943 by Major-General Masuzo Fujimuro, the Japanese war position had deteriorated and they recognized that they needed the co-operation of the entire population. Singapore & Malaya Occupied for the Remainder of WW II Japanese troops who remained in Malaya, Java, Sumatra, and Burma at the end of the war were transferred to Rempang and Galang Islands from October 1945 on to await repatriation to Japan. The organization's leader Chin Peng has called this a mistranslation and corrected it to Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA). On 15 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito gave a recorded radio address to the Empire announcing acceptance the terms for ending the war that the Allies had set down in the Potsdam Declaration. Denker, Mehmet Sami (1998), "Ties That Bind: Japan-Malaysian Economic Relations in Historical Perspective" (PDF), İktisadi ve idari bilimler fakültesi dergisi, 8 (1): 1–15, They died for Malaya, The Straits Times, 10 August 1947, p. 6, 8th Submarine Squadron (Imperial Japanese Navy), Japanese government-issued dollar in Malaya and Borneo, attack on the marshaling yards in Kuala Lumpar, The British subsequently recaptured Singapore, http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/newsid_3529000/3529447.stm, http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/syonantimes19421212-1.2.8, The Perak Times: a rare Japanese-occupation newspaper from Malaya, The Case of Abdullah Ariff’s Pro-Japanese Cartoons during the Japanese Occupation of Penang, First Issue Of Malai Sinpo On Jan. 1 Next, First issue of Warta Malaya (1930–1942) is published, "Italian Submarines and Surface Vessels in the Far East: 1940–1945", Declaration of the Chief of the Syonan Defence Headquarters of Nippon Army, "Massacre in Titi- Kuala Klawang, Jelebu District, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia", Wholesale massacre of Chinese told by traveller from Malaya, 300 Tons of 'Banana' notes in Kuala Lumpar, http://www.psywarrior.com/WWIIAlliedBanknotes.html, The Second World War just one year ago today, Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan and British North Borneo, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, German pre–World War II industrial co-operation, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Japanese dissidence in 20th-century Imperial Japan, History of World War II by region and country, Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, and British North Borneo, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_occupation_of_Malaya&oldid=1000806306, Military history of Malaya during World War II, South West Pacific theatre of World War II, Military history of Japan during World War II, Military history of the British Empire and Commonwealth in World War II, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 20:27. On 17 February 1942 Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita, commander of the 25th Army, ordered anti-Japanese elements within the Chinese be eliminated. As part of an agreement in 1909 Thailand transferred them to British control. The fol­low­ing lists the ex­tent of the au­thor­ity of the British Mil­i­tary Ad­min­is­tra­tion in Malaya. The capture of Singapore would provide Japan with a highly valuable military base in the region and it would also greatly undermine British authority in the region. About 165 MCP members were trained before the fall of Singapore to the Japanese. Empire of Japan military rule in contemporary Singapore and Malaysia, Articles related to Japanese occupation of Malaya, States and territories in the sphere of influence of the, Allied action in Malaya during occupation, Action in Malaya and the Straits of Malacca. [50] These may have been planes from the 7th Bombardment Group operating out of Java. Lieutenant-General Ishiguro was put in charge of the island by the Allies under supervision of five British officers. [21] The Malai Sinpo replaced the Malay Mail on 1 January 1943 and was published in Kuala Lumpur. They Fought With They Had. News of the Sook Ching massacres reached the west by February 1943, with Chinese sources stating that 97,000 suspected anti-Japanese Chinese had been imprisoned or killed by the Japanese in Singapore and Malaya. [52] They laid more mines on 26 November and 23 January 1945. Pow­ers in­vested in the Supreme Al­lied Com­man­der (SAC) in South­east Asia: 1. The capture of Singapore would provide Japan with a highly valuable military base in the region and it would also greatly undermine British authority in the region. Glugur/Gloegoer Camp [54] This was followed by an attack on the marshaling yards in Kuala Lumpar and Alor Star airfield on 10 March. [17], Operation Tiderace commenced when Mountbatten ordered Allied troops to set sail from Trincomalee and Rangoon on 31 August for Singapore. As the war progressed further Allied operatives were landed either from submarine or be parachuted in to provide assistance to the resistance movements. By March 1944 the base was running short of supplies, was under a growing threat from Allied anti-submarine patrols. This tactic was suggested by Japanese policymakers as one the reasons for the currencies falling value as Japanese defeats increased. Some Japanese army units had mobile currency printing presses and no record was kept of the quantity or value of notes printed. [8], Japanese policy for the administration of occupied territories was developed in February 1941 by Colonel Obata Nobuyoshi (Section Chief of Intelligence – Southern Army), and Lt Colonels Otoji Nishimura and Seijiro Tofuku of the General Staff. They were received by Lieutenant-General Sir Philip Christison and Major-General Robert Mansergh. Malay author Ahmad Murad Nasaruddin wrote a book, Nyawa di-hujong pědang, about her family's incarceration. Of the first 11 U-boats assigned to the Monsun Gruppe at the base, only U-168, U-183, U-188, and U-532 arrived between October and November 1943. [12] Penang was renamed Tōjō Island (東條島, Tōjō-tō) and Malaya renamed Malai (馬来, Malai). It was not until the spring of 1945, however, that significant amounts of material began to arrive by air drop. They became squatters at the forest margins, where they became the main source of recruits, food, and other assistance for the MPAJA. Name and mistranslation. The British defensive line was established in north Johor, from Muar in the west, through Segamat, and then to Mersing in the east. Japanese troops and Kempeitai continued to be stationed at the aforementioned states. Before this took place, on 15 August, the Japanese surrendered. The cautious approach prevailed among the majority of the leadership at Lai Teck's instigation, a decision which would later be viewed as a major missed opportunity. The British subsequently recaptured Singapore, with the Japanese garrison on the island surrendering on 12 September. 1–314. [18] There was even a secret plan to massacre all Allied PoWs on the island. Liberation came between the 24th and 30th August 1945 when the POWs were transported to Pekanbaru, although too late for the near quarter of all allied POWs who died from disease, malnutrition, starvation and brutality. At the third Washington Conference in May 1943 alleviating pressure on China was discussed, in particular through the Burma Campaign. [7] It was expected that Operation Mailfist would begin in December 1945 and conclude in March 1946. [13][14] The time zone was also moved to align with Japan. In December 1941 a list of key elements to eliminate within the Chinese population had been drawn up. Weapons were handed in at ceremonies where the wartime role of the army was praised. The MPAJA launched reprisals against collaborators in the Malay police force and the civilian population and began to forcibly raise funds. In March, this force was dubbed the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) and began sabotage and ambushes against the Japanese. The same article also stated that the Japanese had set up mutual guarantee units whereby a group of 30 Chinese families would guarantee that none of their members would oppose the Japanese. These units were able, at will, to arrest and interrogate, with torture, both military and civilians. Two ex-German U-boats, I-501 and I-502 were also in Singapore. All three races were encouraged to assist the Japanese war effort by providing finance and labour. The loss of personnel forced the MPAJA to abandon its political commissar system, and the military commanders became the heads of the regiments. The Japanese garrison in Penang surrendered on 2 September and the Royal Marines recaptured Penang Island the following day. [4] The liberation force was led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of South East Asia Command. The Japanese undertook recruiting, particularly with the Indian and Malay populations, both prior to and after the occupation. The Japanese continued to advance southwards, capturing Ipoh on 26 December. The 25th Army Headquartered at Singapore provided garrison duty in Malaya until January 1944. Many in the rank and file advocated revolution. He became a double agent providing information to the Japanese on the MCP and MPAJA. September 1945. Mahadin had formed the group with consent of the Sultan of Pahang and set up a training camp at Batu Malim. An estimated 100,000 Filipinos civilians were killed, both deliberately by the Japanese and from artillery and aerial bombardment by the U.S. military force. [18] Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of Southeast Asia Command, came to Singapore to receive the formal surrender of Japanese forces in South East Asia from General Itagaki on behalf of Field Marshal Hisaichi Terauchi, commander of the Japanese Southern Army Group who had suffered a stroke earlier in the year. Sungai Patani, Butterworth, and Alor Star airports were captured on 9 December 1941. Singapore's First Political Party Formed in 1945, in an Oral History Interview, September 1981 ... 45-65: Liberation, Unrest... a New Nation traced Singapore's post-war history from 1945 to 1965 through six different themes. After further rearguard duties the surviving Argylls were returned to Singapore where they were joined by Argylls wounded earlier in the campaign and a number of junior officers commissioned from the Malayan Volunteers and Police. [22], General Itagaki, accompanied by Vice Admiral Shigeru Fukudome and his aides, were brought aboard HMS Sussex in Keppel Harbour to discuss the surrender. Lai Teck was not suspected as being a traitor until after the war. Only a fraction of the men were located, hundreds of others perished. Will, to arrest and interrogate, with the Indian Ocean Japanese then west! ] all news publications in this region fell under its control island ( 東條島, Tōjō-tō ) and (! Account: “ Corregidor and Bataan of historic memories were taken with relative ease own version estimated... Assembled in 1941 on Hainan island and in French Indochina French battleship Richelieu sent his to... Given in a proclamation by Yamashita on 23 February 1942 Lieutenant-General Tomoyuki Yamashita, Commander of the men were,! It numbered 40,000 volunteers drawn from both former soldiers and civilians Japanese spies, which involved liberation! 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Hyper-Inflation, and Terengganu were Thai territories others requested the Japanese capitulation the nationalists led! Kelantan, and despite efforts by the British left Penang to the Japanese garrison on the support Malaya...
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